Meningococcal disease - praktyczny angielski

Meningococcal disease – praktyczny angielski

Neisseria meningitidis (also referred to as meningococcus) is a germ that can cause meningococcal disease.

Neisseria meningitidis (also referred to as meningococcus) is a germ that can cause meningococcal disease.

The main types of the disease are: meningitis (an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known as the meninges) and meningococcal septicaemia, also called meningococcaemia (an infection in the bloodstream). Meningococci are divided into 13 serogroups. Most cases of invasive meningococcal disease are caused by serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W135. In Poland, serogroup B has been the cause of most meningococcal disease cases, however prevalence of meningococci C has been increasing.

Although meningococcal disease is not very common, it is a very serious condition. The highest risk groups are children under five years of age and young adults aged 15 to 24 years. N. meningitidis only infects humans and has never been isolated from animals because the bacterium cannot get iron from other than human sources. What’s interesting, it exists as nonpathogenic flora in nasopharynx of up to 5-15% of adults.

Meningococcal disease is not very contagious. The bacteria can pass from person to person by regular, close, prolonged household and intimate contact with secretions from the back of the nose and throat. Symptoms of meningitis may include: rapidly spreading petechial rash (on the trunk, lower extremities, mucous membranes, conjunctiva, as well as the palms of the hands or soles of the feet), severe headache, neck stiffness, high fever, altered mental status, unintelligible speech, fretfulness, grunting, extreme tiredness, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, drowsiness, and convulsions. Symptoms of meningococcaemia are initially similar to those of influenza (fever, nausea, aching or sore muscles, painful or swollen joints, diarrhoea, general malaise). Later, septic shock, hypotension, seizures, anxiety, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome may occur. Even with antibiotic therapy, approximately 1 in 10 patients with meningococcal meningitis will die. Meningococcaemia is even more deadly. Unfortunately, some complications may follow meningococcal disease. Early ones are: raised intracranial pressure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, seizures, collapse, and organ failure. Later complications include: deafness, blindness, lasting neurological deficits, reduced IQ, and gangrene leading to amputations. The effective weapon against meningococcal disease is meningococcal vaccine.


QUESTIONS (Choose TRUE or FALSE)
1. Meningococcal disease is very contagious.
2. Neisseria meningitidis may live as a normal flora in nasopharynx of some animals.
3. Irregular purple or red spots on the body may precede other symptoms of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
4. Meningitis is more deadly than meningococcal septicaemia.
5. Gangrene may occur as a late complication of meningococcal disease.


Glossary:

• meningococcus [mənɪŋgoʊˈkɒkəs] – meningokok
• germ [dʒɜrm] – bakteria, zarazek
• meningitis [mɛnɪnˈdʒaɪtɪs] – zapalenie opon mózgowych
• meninges [mɪˈnɪndʒiz] – opona mózgowo-rdzeniowa
• nasopharynx [neɪzoʊˈfærɪŋks] – jama nosowo-gardłowa
• household [ˈhaʊshoʊld] – domostwo, prowadzenie domu, mieszkanie razem
• petechial rash [pɪˈtikiəl ræʃ] – wysypka wybroczynowa
• trunk [trʌŋk] – tułów, tors
• extremities [ɪkˈstrɛmɪtiz] – kończyny
• sole [soʊl] – podeszwa
• stiffness [ˈstɪfnɪs] – sztywność
• unintelligible [ʌnɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəbəl] – niezrozumiały
• septicaemia [sɛptəˈsimiə] – posocznica
• fretfulness [ˈfrɛtfəlnɪs] – drażliwość
• grunting [grʌnt ɪŋ] – pochrząkiwanie
• drowsiness [ˈdraʊzinɪs] – senność
• malaise [mæˈleɪz] – złe samopoczucie, apatia, niemoc
• seizure [ˈsiʒər] – napad padaczkowy
• disseminated [dɪˈsɛməneɪtɪd] – rozsiany


Correct answers: false, false, true, false, true

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