Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, chemical or electrical energy. They may also occur as a result of prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun, or to other sources of radiation such as X-ray. In order to ensure adequate care for the burn patient, you must first assess the degree of burns, which are classified based upon their depth.
First-degree burns are the least serious burns. They affect only the outer layer of skin, which hasn’t been burned through. The skin becomes red and swollen, and there are often pain symptoms. For first-degree burns use cold water or a cold compress on burned areas for 15 minutes or until the pain subsides. Do not use ice, because it may result in frostbite. After the cooling, you may cover the burn loosely with sterile gauze and tape its edges. You may also use creams with Aloe vera, which moisturizes, cools the burn, and promotes the rates of healing. It usually takes 3-6 days to heal this kind of injury.
Second-degree burns affect the outer and lower layers of skin (epidermis and dermis). Second-
-degree burns cause severe pain and swelling. If blisters appear, do not remove them, but if they break on their own, apply an antibacterial spray or ointment. This kind of burn heals within 10-14 days (sometimes up
to a few weeks, but it depends on the severity of the injury).
Third-degree burns are one of the most serious burns and may cause permanent skin damage. Because
of the destruction of nerve endings, usually third-degree burns have less pain comparing to the injuries described above, although the area around the damaged tissue may be painful. Usually third-degree burns require hospitalization for a few days or for many weeks. If you are at the scene of the accident, do not remove burned clothing from the victim, because there is a risk of additional skin damage and infection. You should also not immerse extensive and severe burns in cold water as this can cause shock. If it is possible, cover the area of the burn with a cool, moist, sterile bandage.
Fourth-degree burns are the most severe ones. They may even affect organs below the skin, as well as bones, muscles, and tendons. First aid for the fourth-degree burns is similar to that for the third-degree burns. Sometimes this type of burn is classified as the third-degree type.
Questions. Choose TRUE or FALSE
1. First-degree burns affect dermis.
2. If blisters appear, you may pop them.
3. Sterile bandage (or gauze) is a very good first-aid cover for burns.
4. Fourth-degree burns require hospitalization.
5. It is very important to take off the burned clothes from the burn victim immediately.
• first aid – pierwsza pomoc
• burn – oparzenie (również czasownik parzyć, palić)
• injury – rana, uraz
• prolonged – długotrwały, przedłużający się
• ultraviolet rays – promienie ultrafioletowe
• to ensure – zapewniać, gwarantować
• to assess – oceniać, szacować
• to be based upon – być opartym na
• depth – głębokość
• swollen – spuchnięty
• pain symptom – objaw bólowy
• to subside – opadać, zmniejszać się, słabnąć
• frostbite – odmrożenie
• sterile gauze – sterylna gaza
• moisturize – nawilżać
• cooling – chłodzenie
• to heal – leczyć, goić się
• epidermis – naskórek
• dermis – skóra właściwa
• blister – pęcherz, bąbel
• at the scene – na miejscu
• to immerse – zanurzać, zatapiać
• moist – wilgotny
• bandage – bandaż
• tendon – ścięgno
Correct answers: false, false, true, true, false